Following are the few steps involved in the process of evaluation:
(i) Identifying and Defining General Objectives:
In the evaluation process first step is to determine what to evaluation, i.e., to set down educational objectives. What kind of abilities and skills should be developed when a pupil studies, say, Mathematics, for one year? What type of understanding should be developed in the pupil who learns his mother tongue? Unless the teacher identifies and states the objectives, these questions will remain unanswered. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators
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The process of identifying and defining educational objectives is a complex one; there is no simple or single procedure which suits all teachers. Some prefer to begin with the course content, some with general aims, and some with lists of objectives suggested by curriculum experts in the area.While stating the objectives, therefore, we can successfully focus our attention on the product i.e., the pupil’s behaviour, at the end of a course of study and state it in terms of his knowledge, understanding, skill, application, attitudes, interests, appreciation, etc.
(ii) Identifying and Defining Specific Objectives:
It has been said that learning is the modification of behaviour in a desirable direction. The teacher is more concerned with a student’s learning than with anything else. Changes in behaviour are an indication of learning. These changes, arising out of classroom instruction, are known as the learning outcome.
What type of learning outcome is expected from a student after he has undergone the teaching-learning process is the first and foremost concern of the teacher. This is possible only when the teacher identifies and defines the objectives in terms of behavioural changes, i.e., learning outcomes.
These specific objectives will provide direction to teaching-learning process. Not only that it will also be useful in planning and organising the learning activities, and in planning and organising evaluation procedures too.Thus, specific objectives determine two things; one, the various types of learning situations to be provided by the class teacher 10 his pupils and second, the method to be employed to evaluate both—the objectives and the learning experiences.
(iii) Selecting Teaching Points:
The next step in the process of evaluation is to select teaching points through which the objectives can be realised. Once the objectives are set up, the next step is to decide the content (curriculum, syllabus, course) to help in the realisation of objectives.
For the teachers, the objectives and courses of school subjects are ready at hand. His job is to analyse the content of the subject matter into teaching points and to find out what specific objectives can be adequately realised through the introduction of those teaching points.
(iv) Planning Suitable Learning Activities:
In the fourth step, the teacher will have to plan the learning activities to be provided to the pupils and, at the same time, bear two things in mind—the objectives as well as teaching points. The process then becomes three dimensional, the three co-ordinates being objectives, teaching points and learning activities. The teacher gets the objectives and content readymade.
He is completely free to select the type of learning activities. He may employ the analytico-synthetic method; he may utilise the inducto-deductive reasoning; he may employ the experimental method or a demonstration method; or he may put a pupil in the position of a discoverer; he may employ the lecture method; or he may ask the pupils to divide into groups and to do a sort of group work followed by a general discussion; and so on. One thing he has to remember is that he should select only such activities as will make it possible for him to realise his objectives.
In the fifth step, the teacher observes and measures the changes in the behaviour of his pupils through testing. This step adds one more dimension to the evaluation process. While testing, he will keep in mind three things-objectives, teaching points and learning activities; but his focus will be on the attainment of objectives. This he cannot do without enlisting the teaching points and planning learning activities of his pupils.
Here the teacher will construct a test by making the maximum use of the teaching points already introduced in the class and the learning experiences already acquired by his pupils. He may plan for an oral lest or a written test; he may administer an essay type test or an objective type of lest; or he may arrange a practical test. Educational Evaluations in US check here
(vi) Using the Results as Feedback:
The last, but not the least, important step in the evaluation process is the use of results as feedback. If the teacher, after testing his pupils, finds that the objectives have not been realised to a great extent, he will use the results in reconsidering the objectives and in organising the learning activities.
He will retrace his steps to find out the drawbacks in the objectives or in the learning activities he has provided for his students. This is known as feedback. Whatever results the teacher gets after testing his pupils should be utilised for the betterment of the students.
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